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Biomass: a natural renewable energy resource
I – Biomass: a natural resource
Is the mass of living beings on Earth (animals and plants). * Biomass plant chlorophyll * prominently on Earth as it transforms solar energy into energy * chemical * (* organic matter produced by photosynthesis *). This deposit of “green” energy is constantly renewed if it is not over-fished and is the staple food of all other living beings. Wood, agricultural crops are available biomass as an energy source * for humans. In regions where climatic conditions are favorable, real tree crops, aquatic plants or grasses * (plants with high photosynthetic efficiency *) are entirely for the production of energy *. For example, plant deciduous trees or conifers to rapid growth (poplar, pine, eucalyptus, etc.). Idle on farmland: they are * coppice crops. Experiments are the same (North America) * agroforestry systems combining culture grasses in * plots encircled by a row of fast-growing trees. II – Biomass, a renewable energy source – Yesterday The use of wood for heating, cooking food or illuminate course is prehistoric. From the seventeenth century by Denis Papin, the wood is used to produce steam pressure required to operate the machines, this is the start of the Industrial Revolution. 1 – The biomass used as biofuel – Dry biomass (wood and straw), * solid organic waste and garbage, waste from the timber industry can satisfy the heating needs in different sectors of human activity, such as biomass boilers for If waste wood industry (estimated at 300 000 tonnes oil equivalent (TOE)) are regularly collected for recycling, forest residues * (estimated at 4 million tonnes oil equivalent (TOE)) are too often burned on site or landfilled. One reason is that the harvesting and packing forest residues are more difficult since we use specialized machines to shred the wood on site. After recovery, for easy storage and provide good food and automaticity in the regulation of boilers, biofuel * must be standardized, calibrated dust. It is thus packaged in the form of chips or granules. To use this sector, it is essential to count on biomass resource * durable and collection costs and reasonable transportation. Local communities choose to use biomass for heating municipal buildings (schools, libraries, gymnasiums, swimming pools …) or space heating agricultural professionals (greenhouses, livestock buildings, drying fodder …). They are powered by a heat network connected to a central heating system. In general, the central heating is powered by two fuel *: biofuel or biofuel and oil and gas. The collective work in a boiler combustion * reversed fan blows air for combustion by directing the flame downward. They are thus less polluting and outperform natural combustion boilers but require proper installation and maintenance very strict.
Although the cost of these facilities is high, according to ADEME, the use of biomass to fuel boilers * provides environmental and economic benefits from the use of fossil fuels *.
- Ventilation and rejuvenation of forests by cutting regular and rational.
- Reduction of greenhouse * with a lower emission of carbon dioxide * (CO2).
- No discharge of sulfur dioxide * (SO2) into the atmosphere because wood * does not contain sulfur compounds.
- No rejection * nitrogen oxides (NOx formula, the most important is the form of nitrogen dioxide NO2) if the combustion temperature is set correctly in the boiler.
- Ash low.
- Deleting a landfill and waste management * community.
- Creation of jobs.
In France, under the plan “Wood energy and local development” launched in 1994, the State encourages local communities to equip themselves with collective heating wood by a grant up to 50% the initial investment.
In Normandy, the first town and is equipped with the Ferte-Mace (Orne) commissioned in early 1999, a boiler * 2 megawatts (MW) of power * runs continuously October in May and provides 85% of the heating needs of 400 social housing units, of nursery and primary school group, the vocational school and gymnasium.
The boiler consumes 3,000 tons of woodchips per year, from April to May sawmill near La Ferte-Mace. Qualified personnel manages the supply of bark boiler and maintenance. Ash and dust from combustion * (approximately 100 tons / year) are used by local farmers as a natural fertilizer.
Bioethanol production is obtained from the fermentation of biomass *. * Are beets, sugar cane, sugar by-products, which are the source of the largest bioethanol. More plants are rich in sugars (hexoses *) * more fermentation is high. Wheat, corn and artichoke are also used because they contain polysaccharides * (starch or inulin) easily converted into hexoses. These plants are first ground to separate the fermentable juice remains to be destined for animal feed (pulp, cake). In distilleries, fermentation of the juice is ensured by yeasts of the genus Saccharomyces * (fungi). This is carried out continuously at 32-33 ° C in partially anaerobic environment * and * pH acid stable and can transform sugars into ethanol * * (* alcohol) and carbon dioxide. Overall, the yield is 46 kg of ethanol per 100 kg of fermented sugars. Purification operations are necessary to extract ethanol from the medium. The direct use of ethanol as a biofuel * can not be done for engines tailored because it takes twice as much air to cause combustion * 1 gram of ethanol compared to 1 gram of fuel classic. By cons, a derivative of ethanol, ETBE (ethyl tertiary butyl ether), can be used directly with standard gasoline, mixed with conventional gasoline. ETBE is obtained by condensation of ethanol with isobutene (refinery petroleum light fraction). The use of bioethanol as a biofuel can raise the octane * and helps to reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide *, * carbon oxide, hydrocarbons and aromatic compounds * (benzene, toluene, xylene ) * in the atmosphere. But in the current state of technology used in the manufacture of bioethanol is a process that is expensive.
The production of vegetable oils
It is obtained from oilseed crops * (soybean, rapeseed, sunflower, peanut). Seeds undergo several mechanical treatment (grinding and pressing) and chemical (refining) to recover pure vegetable oil triglycerides type *. Treatment of triglycerides with methanol * provides two types of products: methylene esters and glycerin (or glycerol *).
Glycerin is used in other fields (manufacture of cosmetics, explosives, etc.).. The remains of seeds (cakes) are intended for animal feed. Methylene esters are used as biofuel * diesel mixed with diesel fuel in amounts of from 5% to 20%. This mixture reduces fumes and particles produced in the combustion of diesel fuel *. The main use for commercial vehicles (trucks, tractors, buses)
3 – The biomass used to produce biogas
Unlike natural gas is methane fossil – Biogas is methane produced by the fermentation of organic waste * current * wet plants or animals (manure, manure, sewage sludge, green waste after composting ). Anaerobic digestion is anaerobic fermentation bacteria * by * at a temperature of 35 ° C. * Bacteria easily degraded residues rich in cellulose *, starch * or * hexoses, harder wood waste (rich in wood). The gases produced by fermentation are composed of 65% methane (CH4), 34% carbon dioxide * (CO2) and 1% other gases (including hydrogen sulfide and nitrogen). Anaerobic digestion is a natural phenomenon developed mainly in swamps, rice crops, cattle farms, landfills. It has the disadvantage of strengthening the global warming * since methane has a greenhouse * higher than that of carbon dioxide.But methane is a good fuel * hence the idea of using it as biogas to produce heat, electricity * or * use as a biofuel. Before use, the biogas must be cleaned. We must get rid of undesirable constituents such as carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide using physicochemical techniques expensive. The use of methane as biogas is rare due to the technical constraints of purification and storage, poor profitability, a negative oil situation and the lack of taxing pollution. Its advantage is to combine a local energy production * and recycling solutions * waste *. Eg Bayeux (Calvados), the swimming pool is partly heated by biogas from sludge treatment plant. The pool is equipped with two boilers: one runs on biogas and covers 20% of the needs, the other runs on natural gas. The use of methane as a fuel * also has advantages for the environment.
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